Primary are forests that are used inconsequentially by indigenous and local communities living traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

Rainforest: an ecosystem characterized by an abundance of mature trees, relatively undisturbed by human activity. Human impacts in such forest areas have been limited to low levels of hunting, fishing and harvesting of forest products, and, in some cases, to low density, shifting agriculture.

Makaibari is the steepest tea garden in the district of Darjeeling. It faces droughty conditions every year due to the hot march winds that sweep up from the scorching plains of Bengal. The retention of the forests , have been born out of  need.
Unlike other tea estates, Makaibari, does not have any springs at the highest point. The march winds exacerbates the drought during first flush and  the monsoons causes immense erosion on the steep slopes where tea is grown. Both adversely impact the tea, the main source of livelihood of the community. The woodlands and permacultural practices have prevented irreparable damage, by providing windbreaks and contributing as a natural source of free mulch, in perpetuity, across the entirety of the plantation which are islands in a sea of natural forests.
The community and tea are a part of the six tier permacultural evolution of Makaibari, which is a working window of certified Community Forest management (CFM)

"Soils constitute the foundation of vegetation and agriculture. Forests need it to grow. We need it for food, feed, fiber, fuel and much more."

José Graziano da Silva, FAO Director-General - International Year of Soils 2015: Healthy soils for a healthy life